Volume 47, No. 1

Search by author or title:

Diving behavior of Pink-footed Shearwaters Ardenna creatopus rearing chicks on Isla Mocha, Chile


1US Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Santa Cruz Field Station, 2885 Mission Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA *(
2Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, Yerbas Buenas 498, Valparaíso, Chile


ADAMS, J., FELIS, J.J., CZAPANSKIY, M., CARLE, R.D. & HODUM, P.J. 2019. Diving behavior of Pink-footed Shearwaters Ardenna creatopus rearing chicks on Isla Mocha, Chile. Marine Ornithology 47: 17 - 24

Received 23 March 2018, accepted 22 August 2018

Date Published: 2019/04/15
Date Online: 2018/11/27
Key words: Pink-footed Shearwater, Ardenna creatopus, foraging behavior, diving, Isla Mocha, fisheries interactions, Chile


Recent information reporting Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna creatopus mortality from fisheries bycatch throughout its range has encouraged fisheries managers in Chile to evaluate and consider shearwater foraging behaviors to better evaluate risk. In response, we tracked six chick-rearing adult Pink-footed Shearwaters from Isla Mocha, off south-central Chile, from 19 to 28 March 2015 using global positioning sensors and time-depth recorders. We recorded seven complete trips averaging 4.2 ± 2.5 d (mean ± SD). Chick-provisioning adults foraged within 334 km (i.e., 175 ± 100 km) of Isla Mocha. Dives (n = 515) occurred throughout the measured foraging range but most frequently occurred within 5-30 km from the mainland coast, in continental shelf waters north of Valdivia. Other regions with diving behavior were within ~20 km of Isla Mocha, and from Lebu to north of Talcahuano. Based on movement behavior analysis, adults spent most of their time at sea “resting/foraging” (62% ± 6%), with the remainder spent “searching” (16% ± 4%) and “transiting” (20% ± 5%). The proportions of total number of dives associated with these three behaviors were similar. On average, dives were relatively shallow (1.6 ± 1.2 m, maximum depth = 10.1 m) and brief (4.7 ± 4.8 s, maximum duration = 25.7 s). Dives occurred during the day, at night, and at twilight, with most activity occurring at twilight and during the day. Although based on a small sample size, our results may be useful for informing modifications to fishing gear or fisheries policy to reduce the likelihood of bycatch and thus meet Chilean conservation goals for Pink-footed Shearwaters.


ACAP (Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels). 2013. Listing of New Species - Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus. Seventh Meeting of the Advisory Committee, 06-10 May 2013. AC7 Doc 24 Rev 1, Agenda Item 14. La Rochelle, France: ACAP. 

ADAMS, J., SCOTT, D., MCKECHNIE, S., BLACKWELL, G., SHAFFER, S.A. & MOLLER, H. 2009. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 36: 355-366.

AINLEY, D.G., DUGGER, K.D., FORD, R.G. ET AL. 2009. Association of predators and prey at frontal features in the California Current: Competition, facilitation, and co-occurrence Marine Ecology Progress Series 389: 271-294.

BALTZ, D.M. & MOREJOHN, G.V. 1977. Food habits and niche overlap of seabirds wintering on Monterey Bay, California. The Auk 94: 526-543.

BRIGGS, K.T., TYLER, W.B., LEWIS, D.B. & CARLSON, D.R. 1987. Bird communities at sea off California: 1975 to 1983. Studies in Avian Biology No. 11. San Diego, CA: Cooper Ornithological Society.

BROOKE, M. DE L. 1987. The Birds of the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile. Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird Preservation.

BROWN, R.G.B., BOURNE, W.R.P. & WAHL, T.R. 1978. Diving by shearwaters. The Condor 80: 123-125.

BULL, L.S. 2009. New mitigation measures reducing seabird by-catch in trawl fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 10: 408-427. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2009.00327.x

BURGER, A.E. 2001. Diving depths of shearwaters. The Auk 118: 755-759.

CARLE, R.D., BECK, J.N, COLODRO, V. & HODUM, P. 2016. Efectos de la exclusión de ganado vacuno sobre la vegetación en el área ocupada por una colonia de Fardela Blanca (Ardenna creatopus) en la Isla Robinson Crusoe, Chile. [Effects of cattle exclusion on the vegetation at a Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) colony on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile.] La Revista Chilena de Ornitología 22: 184-193.

CHANG, W., CHENG, J., ALLAIRE, J.J., XIE, Y. & MCPHERSON, J. 2016. Shiny: Web Application Framework for R. R package version 0.13. 2, 2016. Boston, MA: RStudio, Inc.

DAUNT, F., WANLESS, S., GREENSTREET, S.P.R., JENSEN, H., HAMER, K.C. & HARRIS, M.P. 2008. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure on seabird food consumption, distribution, and productivity in the northwestern North Sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 362-381.

DÁVILA PERÉZ, C.V., VELÁSQUEZ JOFRE, P.M. & SIGÜENZA, R. 2009. Diagnóstico de captura incidental de aves marinas en el Pacífico de Guatemala, Centro América. Corvallis, OR: Pacific Seabird Group. [Available online at: Accessed 12 October 2018.]

DIAS, M.P., GRANADEIRO, J.P. & CATRY, P. 2012. Working the day or the night shift? Foraging schedules of Cory's shearwaters vary according to marine habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series 467: 245-252. 

ENVIRONMENT CANADA. 2008. Recovery strategy for the Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) and the Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) in Canada. Species at Risk Act: Recovery Strategy Series. Ottawa: Environment Canada.

ESCRIBANO, R., HIDALGO, P., GONZÁLEZ, H., GIESECKE, R., RIQUELME-BUGUEÑO, R. & MANRÍQUEZ, K. 2007. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of mesozooplankton in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile. Progress in Oceanography 75: 470-485.

FAUCHALD, P. & TVERAA, T. 2003. Using first‐passage time in the analysis of area‐restricted search and habitat selection. Ecology 84: 282-288.

GLADICS, A.J., MELVIN, E.F., SURYAN, R.M., GOOD, T.P., JANNOT, J.E. & GUY, T.J. 2017. Fishery-specific solutions to seabird bycatch in the U.S. West Coast sablefish fishery. Fisheries Research 196: 85-95.

GUICKING, D., MICKSTEIN, S. & SCHLATTER, R.P. 1999. Estado de la población de Fardela blanca (Puffinus creatopus, Coues, 1864) en Isla Mocha, Chile. Boletin Chileno de Ornitología 6: 33-35.

GUICKING, D., RISTOW, D., BECKER, P.H., SCHLATTER, R., BERTHOLD, P. & QUERNER, U. 2001. Satellite tracking of the Pink-footed Shearwater in Chile. Waterbirds: The International Journal of Waterbird Biology 24: 8-15.

GUICKING, D., FIEDLER, W., LEUTHER, C., SCHLATTER, R. & BECKER, P.H. 2004. Morphometrics of the pink-footed shearwater (Puffinus creatopus): Influence of sex and breeding site. Journal of Ornithology 145: 64-68.

GRANTHAM, H.S., PETERSEN, S.L. & POSSINGHAM, H.P. 2008. Reducing bycatch in the South African pelagic longline fishery: The utility of different approaches to fisheries closures. Endangered Species Research 5: 291-299.

GRÉMILLET, D., PÉRON, C., PONS, J.-B. ET AL. 2014. Irreplaceable area extends marine conservation hotspot off Tunisia: Insights from GPS-tracking Scopoli's shearwaters from the largest seabird colony in the Mediterranean. Marine Biology 161: 2669-2680.

HOWELL, S.N.G. 2012. Petrels, Albatrosses, and Storm-Petrels of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

HYRENBACH, K.D., FORNEY, K.A. & DAYTON, P.K. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10: 437-458.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-1. [Available online at: Accessed 12 October 2018.]

KELLEY, D. & RICHARDS, C. 2015. oce: Analysis of Oceanographic Data. R package version 0.9-17.

KURODA, N. 1954. On the classification and phylogeny of the order Tubinares, particularly the shearwaters (Puffinus). Tokyo, Japan: Published by the author.

LEWISON, R.L. & CROWDER, L.B. 2003. Estimating fishery bycatch and effects on a vulnerable seabird population. Ecological Applications 13: 743-753.

LUQUE, S.P. & FRIED, R. 2011. Recursive filtering for zero offset correction of diving depth time series with GNU R package diveMove. PLoS One 6: e15850.

MANGEL, J.C., ADAMS, J., ALFARO-SHIGUETO, J. ET AL. 2013. Conservation implications of Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) movements and fishery interactions assessed using multiple methods. Fifth Meeting of the Seabird Bycatch Working Group. 01-03 May 2013. SBWG5 Doc 06, Agenda Item 18, 19. La Rochelle, France: Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels. [Available online at: Accessed 02 August 2018.]

MANGEL, J.C., ALFARO-SHIGUETO, J., BAQUERO, A., DARQUEA J., GODLEY, B.J. & HARDESTY NORRIS, J. 2011. Seabird bycatch by small-scale fisheries in Ecuador and Peru. Sixth Meeting of Advisory Committee, 29 August-02 September 2011. SBWG4 Doc 24, Agenda Item 5. Guayaquil, Ecuador: ACAP.

MARTIN, A.R. 1986. Feeding association between dolphins and shearwaters around the Azores Islands. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 1372-1374.

MATSUMOTO, K., OKA, N., OCHI, D., MUTO, F., SATOH, T.P. & WATANUKI, Y. 2012. Foraging behavior and diet of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas rearing chicks on Mikura Island. Ornithological Science 11: 9-19.

MINISTERIO SECRETARÍA GENERAL DE LA PRESIDENCIA. 2005. Reglamento para la Clasificación de Especies Silvestres, 2005. Decreto Supremo Nº75. Santiago, Chile: Ministerio Secretaría General de la Presidencia, Chile. [Available online at: Accessed 02 August 2018.]

MORALES, C.E., BLANCO, J.L., BRAUN, M., REYES, H. & SILVA, N. 1996. Chlorophyll-a distribution and associated oceanographic conditions in the upwelling region off northern Chile during the winter and spring 1993. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 43: 267-289.

PAIVA, V.H., GERALDES, P., RAMÍREZ, I., MEIRINHO, A., GARTHE, S. & RAMOS, J.A. 2010. Foraging plasticity in a pelagic seabird species along a marine productivity gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series 398: 259-274.

PECK, D.R. & CONGDON, B.C. 2006. Sex-specific chick provisioning and diving behaviour in the Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 245-251.

PHILLIPS, R.A., XAVIER, J.C. & CROXALL, J.P. 2003. Effects of satellite transmitters on albatrosses and petrels. The Auk 120: 1082-1090.

PRIDDEL, D., CARLILE, N., FULLAGAR, P., HUTTON, I. & O'NEILL, L. 2006. Decline in the distribution and abundance of Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes) on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Biological Conservation 128: 412-424.

RAYNER, M.J., TAYLOR, G.A., THOMPSON, D.R., TORRES, L.G., SAGAR, P.M. & SHAFFER, S.A. 2011. Migration and diving activity in three non-breeding Flesh-footed Shearwaters Puffinus carneipes. Journal of Avian Biology 42: 266-270.

ROBERTSON, G. 1998. The culture and practice of longline tuna fishing: Implications for seabird by catch-mitigation. Bird Conservation International 8: 211-221.

ROBERTSON, G., MCNEILL, M., SMITH, N., WIENECKE, B., CANDY, S., & OLIVIER, F. 2006. Fast sinking (integrated weight) longlines reduce mortality of White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) in demersal longline fisheries. Biological Conservation 132: 458-471.

ROBERTSON, G., MORENO, C., ARATA, J.A. ET AL. 2014. Black-browed Albatross numbers in Chile increase in response to reduced mortality in fisheries. Biological Conservation 169: 319-333.

RONCONI, R.A., RYAN, P.G. & ROPERT-COUDERT, Y. 2010. Diving of Great Shearwaters (Puffinus gravis) in cold and warm water regions of the South Atlantic Ocean. PLos One 5: e15508.

RUBOLINI, D., MAGGINI, I., AMBROSINI, R. ET AL. 2015. The effect of moonlight on Scopoli's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea colony attendance patterns and nocturnal foraging: A test of the foraging efficiency hypothesis. Ethology 121: 284-299.

SHAFFER, G., HORMAZABAL, S., PIZARRO, O. & SALINAS, S. 1999. Seasonal and interannual variability of currents and temperature off central Chile. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 29951-29961.

SHAFFER, S.A., WEIMERSKIRCH, H., SCOTT, D. ET AL. 2009. Spatiotemporal habitat use by breeding Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus griseus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 391: 209-220. 

SHOJI, A., DEAN, B., KIRK, H., FREEMAN, R., PERRINS, C.M. & GUILFORD, T. 2016. The diving behaviour of the Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus. Ibis 158: 598-606.

SOBARZO, M., BRAVO, L., DONOSO, D., GARCÉS-VARGAS, J. & SCHNEIDER, W. 2007. Coastal upwelling and seasonal cycles that influence the water column over the continental shelf off central Chile. Progress in Oceanography 75: 363-382.

SUAZO, C.G., CABEZAS, L.A., MORENO, C.A. ET AL. 2014. Seabird bycatch in Chile: A synthesis of its impacts, and a review of strategies to contribute to the reduction of a global phenomenon. Pacific Seabirds 41: 1-12.

SUAZO, C.G., CABEZAS, L.A. & YATES, O. 2016. Collaboration on technical innovation towards the reduction of seabird bycatch in purse seine fisheries. Seventh Meeting of the Seabird Bycatch Working Group, 02-04 May 2016. SBWG7 Doc 20 Rev 1, Agenda Item 9. La Serena, Chile: ACAP.

SUAZO, C.G., FRERE, E., GARCÍA, M., COCAS, L. & YATES, O. 2017. Assessment of the “Modified Purse Seine (MPS)” against ACAP best practice criteria. Eighth Meeting of the Seabird Bycatch Working Group, 04-06 September 2017. SBWG8 Doc 21, Agenda Item 10.1. Wellington, New Zealand: ACAP.

TORRES, L.G., ORBEN, R.A., TOLKOVA, I. & THOMPSON, D.R. 2017. Classification of animal movement behavior through residence in space and time. PLoS One 12: p.e0168513.

VEGA, R., OSSA, L., SUÁREZ, B. ET AL. 2018. Informe Final: Convenio de Desempeño 2017. Programa de Observadores Científicos, 2017. Valparaíso, Chile: Instituto de Fomento Pesquero.

VELARDE, E., GARCA-ALBERTO, G., GASTELUM-NAVA, E. & ANDERSON, D. 2017. Seabird bycatch by the purse-seine small pelagic fishery in the central Gulf of California. 44th Annual Meeting of the Pacific Seabird Group. Tacoma, WA: Pacific Seabird Group. [Available online at: Accessed on 03 November 2017.]

WEIMERSKIRCH, H. & CHEREL, Y. 1998. Feeding ecology of short-tailed shearwaters: Breeding in Tasmania and foraging in the Antarctic? Marine Ecology Progress Series 167: 261-274.

YAMAMOTO, T., TAKAHASHI, A., YODA, K. ET AL. 2008. The lunar cycle affects at-sea behaviour in a pelagic seabird, the Streaked Shearwater, Calonectris leucomelas. Animal Behaviour 76: 1647-1652.

Search by author or title:

Browse previous volumes: