Volume 51, No. 1

Search by author or title:

The potential of ecologists to enhance our understanding of seabird health


1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia *(
2Wildlife Health and Marine Section, Department of Natural Resources and Environment Tasmania, 134 Macquarie Street, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia
3Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, 20 Castray Esplanade, Battery Point, Tasmania 7004, Australia


WELLS, M.R., PHILIPS, A., LEA, M.A. & CARVER, S. 2023. The potential of ecologists to enhance our understanding of seabird health. Marine Ornithology 51: 11 - 22

Received 03 June 2022, accepted 13 October 2022

Date Published: 2023/04/15
Date Online: 2023/04/10
Key words: passive, active, surveillance, One Health, auxiliary sample


Ecologists play a pivotal role in the detection and investigation of population changes in seabirds and by doing so have significant potential to contribute to enhancing knowledge of seabird health. This review highlights key examples in the literature where ecologists have employed diligent passive health surveillance and/or undertaken targeted investigations of seabirds, strategies that have augmented our knowledge of seabird health at individual and population levels. Within the context of One Health, an integrated approach to perceiving and managing health, this review amalgamates veterinarian and ecology disciplines by summarising auxiliary metrics of clinical health that may be considered for incorporation into ongoing fieldwork. A focus on effective surveillance will advance understanding of disease processes impacting seabird health.


AINLEY, D.G. & HYRENBACH, K.D. 2010. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006). Progress in Oceanography 84: 242-254. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2009.10.001

ALDERMAN, R. & HOBDAY, A.J. 2017. Developing a climate adaptation strategy for vulnerable seabirds based on prioritisation of intervention options. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 140: 290-297. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.07.003

ALLEY, M., MORGAN, K., GILL, J. & HOCKEN, A. 2004. Diseases and causes of mortality in yellow-eyed penguins, megadyptes antipodes. Kokako 11: 18-23.

ARTOIS, M., BENGIS, R., DELAHAY, R.J. ET AL. 2009. Wildlife disease surveillance and monitoring. In: DELANEY, R.J., SMITH, G.G. & HUTCHINGS, M.R. (Eds.) Management of Disease in Wild Animals. Tokyo, Japan: Springer.

BARBOSA, A., BALAGUÉ, V., VALERA, F. ET AL. 2016. Age-related differences in the gastrointestinal microbiota of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica). PLoS One 11: e0153215. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153215

BARBOSA, A., DE MAS, E., BENZAL, J. ET AL. 2013. Pollution and physiological variability in gentoo penguins at two rookeries with different levels of human visitation. Antarctic Science 25: 329-338. doi:10.1017/s0954102012000739

BARBOSA, A., MERINO, S., BENZAL, J., MARTINEZ, J. & GARCÍA-FRAILE, S. 2006. Geographic variation in the immunoglobulin levels in pygoscelid penguins. Polar Biology 30: 219-225. doi:10.1007/s00300-006-0175-9

BARBOSA, A., MERINO, S., BENZAL, J., MARTÍNEZ, J. & GARCÍA-FRAILE, S. 2007. Population variability in heat shock proteins among three Antarctic penguin species. Polar Biology 30: 1239-1244. doi:10.1007/s00300-007-0284-0

BARBOSA, A. & PALACIOS, M.J. 2009. Health of Antarctic birds: a review of their parasites, pathogens and diseases. Polar Biology 32: 1095-1115. doi:10.1007/s00300-009-0640-3

BARBOSA, A., VARSANI, A., MORANDINI, V. ET AL. 2021. Risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 in Antarctic wildlife. Science of The Total Environment 755: 143352. doi:0.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143352

BARBRAUD, C., RIVALAN, P., INCHAUSTI, P., NEVOUX, M., ROLLAND, V. & WEIMERSKIRCH, H. 2011. Contrasted demographic responses facing future climate change in southern ocean seabirds. Journal of Animal Ecology 80: 89-100. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01752

BAUCH, C., GATT, M.C., VERHULST, S., GRANADEIRO, J.P. & CATRY, P. 2022. Higher mercury contamination is associated with shorter telomeres in a long-lived seabird - a direct effect or a consequence of among-individual variation in phenotypic quality? Science of The Total Environment 839: 156359. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156359

BERGSTRÖM, S., D. HAEMIG, P. & OLSEN, B. 1999. Increased mortality of black-browed albatross chicks at a colony heavily-infested with the tick Ixodes uriae. International Journal for Parasitology 29: 1359-1361. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(99)00088-0

BERLINCOURT, M. & ARNOULD, J.P.Y. 2015. Influence of environmental conditions on foraging behaviour and its consequences on reproductive performance in little penguins. Marine Biology 162: 1485-1501. doi:10.1007/s00227-015-2685-x

BESTLEY, S., ROPERT-COUDERT, Y., BENGTSON NASH, S. ET AL. 2020. Marine ecosystem assessment for the southern ocean: birds and marine mammals in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8: 566936 doi:810.3389/fevo.2020.566936

BLÉVIN, P., TARTU, S., ANGELIER, F. ET AL. 2014. Integument colouration in relation to persistent organic pollutants and body condition in arctic breeding black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Science of The Total Environment 470-471: 248-254. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.049

BOURRET, V., GAMBLE, A., TORNOS, J. ET AL. 2018. Vaccination protects endangered albatross chicks against avian cholera. Conservation Letters 11: e12443. doi:10.1111/conl.12443

BROOKS, D.R. & HOBERG, E.P. 2008. Darwin's necessary misfit and the sloshing bucket: the evolutionary biology of emerging infectious diseases. Evolution: Education and Outreach 1: 2-9.

BROWN, M.E. 1996. Assessing body condition in birds. In: VAL NOLAN, E. (Ed.) Current Ornithology. Boston, USA: Springer.

BURGER, J., VISCIDO, K. & GOCHFELD, M. 1995. Eggshell thickness in marine birds in the New York Bight—1970s to 1990s. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 29: 187-191. doi:10.1007/BF00212969

BURTON, N.H.K., REHFISCH, M.M., CLARK, N.A. & DODD, S.G. 2006. Impacts of sudden winter habitat loss on the body condition and survival of redshank Tringa totanus. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 464-473. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01156.x

BUSTNES, J.O., BOURGEON, S., LEAT, E.H.K. ET AL. 2015. Multiple stressors in a top predator seabird: potential ecological consequences of environmental contaminants, population health and breeding conditions. PLoS One 10: e0131769. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131769

CABODEVILLA, X., GÓMEZ‐MOLINER, B.J., ABAD, N. & MADEIRA, M.J. 2022. Simultaneous analysis of the intestinal parasites and diet through eDNA metabarcoding. Integrative Zoology 0: 1-13 doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12634

CAMPBELL, K., PAPARINI, A., GOMEZ, A.B., CANNELL, B. & STEPHENS, N. 2022. Fatal toxoplasmosis in little penguins (Eudyptula minor) from penguin island, western Australia. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 17: 211-217. doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2022.02.006

CAMPBELL, T.W. 2015. Evaluation of the blood film. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 18: 117-135. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2014.09.001

CANNELL, B.L., KRASNEC, K.V., CAMPBELL, K., JONES, H.I., MILLER, R.D. & STEPHENS, N. 2013. The pathology and pathogenicity of a novel Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Veterinary Parasitology 197: 74-84. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.04.025

CAREY, M.J. 2009. The effects of investigator disturbance on procellariiform seabirds: a review. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 36: 367-377. doi:10.1080/03014220909510161

CARRAVIERI, A., BUSTAMANTE, P., LABADIE, P., BUDZINSKI, H., CHASTEL, O. & CHEREL, Y. 2020. Trace elements and persistent organic pollutants in chicks of 13 seabird species from antarctica to the subtropics. Environment International 134: 105225. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.105225

CHAMBERS, L.E., PATTERSON, T., HOBDAY, A.J. ET AL. 2015. Determining trends and environmental drivers from long-term marine mammal and seabird data: examples from southern Australia. Regional Environmental Change 15: 197-209.

CHASTEL, O., FORT, J., ACKERMAN, J.T. ET AL. 2022. Mercury contamination and potential health risks to arctic seabirds and shorebirds. Science of the Total Environment 844: 156944. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156944

CLARKE, J. & KERRY, K. 2000. Diseases and parasites of penguins. Penguin Conservation 13: 5-24.

CLEELAND, J.B., PARDO, D., RAYMOND, B. ET AL. 2020. Introduced species and extreme weather as key drivers of reproductive output in three sympatric albatrosses. Scientific Reports 10: 8199. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-64662-5

COHEN, L., PICHEGRU, L., GRÉMILLET, D., COETZEE, J., UPFOLD, L. & RYAN, P. 2014. Changes in prey availability impact the foraging behaviour and fitness of Cape gannets over a decade. Marine Ecology Progress Series 505: 281-293. doi:10.3354/meps10762

COLOMINAS-CIURÓ, R., BERTELLOTTI, M., D'AMICO, V. ET AL. 2021. Diet, antioxidants and oxidative status in pygoscelid penguins. Marine Ecology Progress Series 665: 201-216. doi:10.3354/meps13651

COOPER, J., CRAWFORD, R.J., DE VILLIERS, M.S., DYER, B.M., HOFMEYR, G.G. & JONKER, A. 2009. Disease outbreaks among penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion Island: a conservation concern. Marine Ornithology 37: 193-196.

CROXALL, J.P., BUTCHART, S.H.M., LASCELLES, B. ET AL. 2012. Seabird conservation status, threats and priority actions: a global assessment. Bird Conservation International 22: 1-34. doi:10.1017/s0959270912000020

CURY, P.M., BOYD, I.L., BONHOMMEAU, S. ET AL. 2011. Global seabird response to forage fish depletion-One-third for the birds. Science 334: 1703-1706. doi:10.1126/science.1212928

D'AMICO, V.L., BERTELLOTTI, M., DÍAZ, J.I., CORIA, N., VIDAL, V. & BARBOSA, A. 2014. Leucocyte levels in some Antarctic and non-Antarctic Penguins. Ardeola 61: 145-152.

DE MAS, E., BENZAL, J., MERINO, S. ET AL. 2015. Erythrocytic abnormalities in three Antarctic penguin species along the Antarctic Peninsula: biomonitoring of genomic damage. Polar Biology 38: 1067-1074. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1667-2

DEEM, S.L., KARESH, W.B. & WEISMAN, W. 2008. Putting theory into practice: wildlife health in conservation. Conservation Biology 15: 1224-1233. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2001.00336.x

DESTOUMIEUX-GARZÓN, D., MAVINGUI, P., BOETSCH, G. ET AL. 2018. The one health concept: 10 years old and a long road ahead. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5: 14. doi:510.3389/fvets.2018.00014

DEWAR, M., WILLE, M., GAMBLE, A. ET AL. 2022. The risk of Avian Influenza in the Southern Ocean: a practical guide for operators interacting with wildlife. Preprint. [Accessed at on 16 Nov 2022.] doi:10.32942/

DEWAR, M.L., ARNOULD, J.P.Y., KRAUSE, L., TRATHAN, P., DANN, P. & SMITH, S.C. 2014. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins. PLoS One 9: e99996. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099996

DHARMARAJAN, G., GUPTA, P., VISHNUDAS, C.K. & ROBIN, V.V. 2021. Anthropogenic disturbance favours generalist over specialist parasites in bird communities: Implications for risk of disease emergence. Ecology Letters 24: 1859-1868. doi:10.1111/ele.13818

DIAS, M.P., MARTIN, R., PEARMAIN, E.J. ET AL. 2019. Threats to seabirds: a global assessment. Biological Conservation 237: 525-537. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2019.06.033

DIAZ, J.I., FUSARO, B., VIDAL, V. ET AL. 2017. Macroparasites in Antarctic Penguins. In: KLIMPEL, S., KUHN, T. & MEHLHORN, H. (Eds.) Biodiversity and evolution of parasitic life in the Southern Ocean. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

DILLEY, B.J., SCHOOMBIE, S., SCHOOMBIE, J. & RYAN, P.G. 2016. ‘Scalping' of albatross fledglings by introduced mice spreads rapidly at Marion Island. Antarctic Science 28: 73-80. doi:10.1017/s0954102015000486

DUDA, M.P., GLEW, J.R., MICHELUTTI, N. ET AL. 2020. Long-term changes in terrestrial vegetation linked to shifts in a colonial seabird population. Ecosystems 23: 1643-1656. doi:10.1007/s10021-020-00494-8

DUIGNAN, P.J. 2001. Diseases of penguins. Surveillance 28: 5-11.

DYNOWSKA, M., WOJCZULANIS-JAKUBAS, K., PACYŃSKA, J.A., JAKUBAS, D. & EJDYS, E. 2013. Potentially pathogenic yeast isolated from the throat and cloaca of an Arctic colonial seabird: the little auk (Alle alle). Polar Biology 36: 343-348. doi:10.1007/s00300-012-1263-7

ECKBO, N., LE BOHEC, C., PLANAS-BIELSA, V. ET AL. 2019. Individual variability in contaminants and physiological status in a resident Arctic seabird species. Environmental Pollution 249: 191-199. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.025

EDWARDS, D.B., MALLORY, M.L. & FORBES, M.R. 2006. Variation in baseline haematology of Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in the Canadian High Arctic. Comparative Clinical Pathology 14: 206-209. doi:10.1007/s00580-005-0589-8

EINODER, L.D. 2009. A review of the use of seabirds as indicators in fisheries and ecosystem management. Fisheries Research 95: 6-13. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2008.09.024

ELLIS, J.C. 2005. Marine birds on land: a review of plant biomass, species richness, and community composition in seabird colonies. Plant Ecology 181: 227-241. doi:10.1007/s11258-005-7147-y

FEREIDOUNI, S.R., GLOBIG, A., STARICK, E. & HARDER, T.C. 2012. Effect of swab matrix, storage time, and temperature on detection of avian influenza virus RNA in swab samples. Avian Diseases 56: 955-958. doi:10.1637/10146-033012

FINGER, A., LAVERS, J.L., DANN, P. ET AL. 2015. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution. Environmental Pollution 205: 365-377. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.06.022

FORT, J., LACOUE-LABARTHE, T., NGUYEN, H.L., BOUÉ, A., SPITZ, J. & BUSTAMANTE, P. 2015. Mercury in wintering seabirds, an aggravating factor to winter wrecks? Science of The Total Environment 527-528: 448-454. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.018

FREDERIKSEN, M., MAVOR, R. & WANLESS, S. 2007. Seabirds as environmental indicators: the advantages of combining data sets. Marine Ecology Progress Series 352: 205-211. doi:10.3354/meps07071

FULLICK, E., BIDEWELL, C., DUFF, J. ET AL. 2022. Mass mortality of seabirds in GB. Veterinary Record 190: 129-130. doi:10.1002/vetr.1462

GAMBLE, A., BAZIRE, R., DELORD, K., ET AL. 2020a. Predator and scavenger movements among and within endangered seabird colonies: opportunities for pathogen spread. Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 367-378. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.13531

GAMBLE, A., GARNIER, R., JAEGER, A. ET AL. 2019. Exposure of breeding albatrosses to the agent of avian cholera: dynamics of antibody levels and ecological implications. Oecologia 189: 939-949. doi:10.1007/s00442-019-04369-1

GAMBLE, A., WEIMERSKIRCH, H. & BOULINIER, T. 2020b. Seabirds blinded by ticks. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 18: 322-322. doi:10.1002/fee.2237

GAUTHIER-CLERC, M., CLERQUIN, Y. & HANDRICH, Y. 1998. Hyperinfestation by ticks Ixodes uriae: a possible cause of death in adult king penguins, a long-lived seabird. Colonial Waterbirds 21: 229-233. doi:10.2307/1521910

GILBERT, A.T., FOOKS, A.R., HAYMAN, D.T.S. ET AL. 2013. Deciphering serology to understand the ecology of infectious diseases in wildlife. Ecohealth 10: 298-313. doi:10.1007/s10393-013-0856-0

GRIMALDI, W., JABOUR, J. & WOEHLER, E.J. 2010. Considerations for minimising the spread of infectious disease in Antarctic seabirds and seals. Polar Record 47: 56-66. doi:10.1017/s0032247410000100

GRIMALDI, W.W., SEDDON, P.J., LYVER, P.O.B., NAKAGAWA, S. & TOMPKINS, D.M. 2015. Infectious diseases of Antarctic penguins: current status and future threats. Polar Biology 38: 591-606. doi:10.1007/s00300-014-1632-5

HAWKEY, C.M., HORSLEY, D.T. & KEYMER, I.F. 1989. Haematology of wild penguins (spenisciformes) in the Falkland Islands. Avian Pathology 18: 495-502. doi:10.1080/03079458908418621

HEARD, M.J., SMITH, K.F., RIPP, K.J. ET AL. 2013. The threat of disease increases as species move toward extinction. Conservation Biology 27: 1378-1388. doi:10.1111/cobi.12143

HERBORN, K.A., HEIDINGER, B.J., BONER, W. ET AL. 2014. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 281: 20133151. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3151

HOUWEN, B. 2002. Blood film preparation and staining procedures. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 22: 1-14.

INCHAUSTI, P., GUINET, C., KOUDIL, M. ET AL. 2003. Inter-annual variability in the breeding performance of seabirds in relation to oceanographic anomalies that affect the Crozet and the Kerguelen sectors of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Avian Biology 34: 170-176. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048x.2003.03031.x

JACOBS, S.R., ELLIOTT, K., GUIGUENO, M.F. ET AL. 2012. Determining seabird body condition using nonlethal measures. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85: 85-95. doi:10.1086/663832

JAEGER, A., GAMBLE, A., LAGADEC, E. ET AL. 2019. Exploring the infection dynamics of a bacterial pathogen on a remote oceanic island reveals annual epizootics impacting an albatross population. bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/711283

JAEGER, A., GAMBLE, A., LAGADEC, E. ET AL. 2020. Impact of annual bacterial epizootics on albatross population on a remote island. Ecohealth 17: 194-202. doi:10.1007/s10393-020-01487-8

JAKOB-HOFF, R.M., MACDIARMID, S.C., LEES, C., MILLER, P.S., TRAVIS, D. & KOCK, R 2014. Manual of procedures for wildlife disease risk analysis. Paris, France: World Organization for Animal Health and International Union for Conservation of Nature.

JASPERS, V.L.B. 2008. Preen oil as the main source of external contamination with organic pollutants onto feathers of the common magpie (Pica pica). Environment International 34: 741-748. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2007.12.002

JASPERS, V.L.B., COVACI, A., HERZKE, D., EULAERS, I. & EENS, M. 2019. Bird feathers as a biomonitor for environmental pollutants: prospects and pitfalls. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 118: 223-226. doi:10.1016/j.trac.2019.05.019

JASPERS, V.L.B., VOORSPOELS, S., COVACI, A., LEPOINT, G. & EENS, M. 2007. Evaluation of the usefulness of bird feathers as a non-destructive biomonitoring tool for organic pollutants: a comparative and meta-analytical approach. Environment International 33: 328-337. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2006.11.011

JEREZ, S., MOTAS, M., BENZAL, J. ET AL. 2013. Distribution of metals and trace elements in adult and juvenile penguins from the Antarctic Peninsula area. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20: 3300-3311. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-1235-z

JEREZ, S., MOTAS, M., PALACIOS, M.J., VALERA, F., CUERVO, J.J. & BARBOSA, A. 2011. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of three Antarctic penguins: geographical and interspecific differences. Environmental Pollution 159: 2412-2419. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.036

KARESH, W.B., UHART, M.M., FRERE, E. ET AL. 1999. Health evaluation of free-ranging rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocomes) in Argentina. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30: 25-31.

KERRY, K., RIDDLE, M.CLARKE, J. 1999. Diseases of Antarctic wildlife. A report for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP). Kingston, Australia: Australia Antarctic Division.

KHAN, J.S., PROVENCHER, J.F., FORBES, M.R., MALLORY, M.L., LEBARBENCHON, C. & MCCOY, K.D. 2019. Parasites of seabirds: a survey of effects and ecological implications. Advances in Marine Biology 82: 1-50. doi:10.1016/bs.amb.2019.02.001

KOPHAMEL, S., ILLING, B., ARIEL, E. ET AL. 2021. Importance of health assessments for conservation in noncaptive wildlife. Conservation Biology 36: e13724. doi:10.1111/cobi.13724

KOREN, L., NAKAGAWA, S., BURKE, T., SOMA, K.K., WYNNE-EDWARDS, K.E. & GEFFEN, E. 2012. Non-breeding feather concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol are associated with subsequent survival in wild house sparrows. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 279: 1560-1566. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.2062

KUEPPER, N.D., BÖHM, L., BRAUN, C. ET AL. 2022. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in a colony of Antarctic seabirds: higher concentrations in 1998, 2001, and 2003 compared to 2014 to 2016. Polar Biology 45: 1229-1245. doi:10.1007/s00300-022-03065-w

LABOCHA, M.K. & HAYES, J.P. 2012. Morphometric indices of body condition in birds: a review. Journal of Ornithology 153: 1-22. doi:10.1007/s10336-011-0706-1

LABOCHA, M.K., SCHUTZ, H. & HAYES, J.P. 2014. Which body condition index is best? Oikos 123: 111-119. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00755.x

LAHOZ-MONFORT, J.J., MORGAN, B.J.T., HARRIS, M.P., DAUNT, F., WANLESS, S. & FREEMAN, S.N. 2013. Breeding together: modeling synchrony in productivity in a seabird community. Ecology 94: 3-10. doi:10.1890/12-0500.1

LEOTTA, G., RIVAS, M., CHINEN, I., ET AL. 2003. Avian cholera in a southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from antarctica. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39: 732-735.

ACEDA-VEIGA, A., FIGUEROLA, J., MARTÍNEZ-SILVESTRE, A., VISCOR, G., FERRARI, N. & PACHECO, M. 2015. Inside the Redbox: applications of haematology in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment. Science of The Total Environment 514: 322-332. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.004

MALLORY, M.L., ROBINSON, S.A., HEBERT, C.E. & FORBES, M.R. 2010. Seabirds as indicators of aquatic ecosystem conditions: a case for gathering multiple proxies of seabird health. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 7-12. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.08.024

MANLOVE, K.R., WALKER, J.G., CRAFT, M.E. ET AL. 2016. “One Health” or three? Publication silos among the One Health disciplines. PLoS Biology 14: e1002448. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002448

MARTÍN, M.A., ORTIZ, J.M., SEVA, J. ET AL. 2016. Mode of attachment and pathology caused by Parorchites zederi in three species of penguins: Pygoscelis papua, Pygoscelis adeliae, and Pygoscelis antarctica in antarctica. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 52: 568-575. doi:10.7589/2015-07-200

MATOS, A.M.R.N.D., DOMIT, C., & BRACARENSE, A.P.F.R.L. 2020. Seabirds: Studies with parasitofauna and potential indicator for environmental anthropogenic impacts. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 41: 1439. doi:10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n4p1439

MCINNES, J.C., ALDERMAN, R., DEAGLE, B.E., LEA, M.A., RAYMOND, B. & JARMAN, S.N. 2017. Optimised scat collection protocols for dietary DNA metabarcoding in vertebrates. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8: 192-202. doi:10.1111/2041-210x.12677

MEGAN, L. 2018. Impact of toxic elements and persistent organic pollutants on Avian Flu in Arctic seabirds. PhD thesis. Trondheim, Norway: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

MENÉNDEZ-BLÁZQUEZ, J., SOTO, F., NEGRETE, J. ET AL. 2021. Leukocyte counts in blood smears of Antarctic seals and penguins: a new less time-consuming method. Polar Biology 44: 2195-2198. doi:10.1007/s00300-021-02950-0

MICOL, T. & JOUVENTIN, P. 2001. Long-term population trends in seven Antarctic seabirds at Pointe Géologie (Terre Adélie). Polar Biology 24: 175-185. doi:10.1007/s003000000193

MINIAS, P. 2015. The use of haemoglobin concentrations to assess physiological condition in birds: a review. Conservation Physiology 3: cov007. doi:10.1093/conphys/cov007

MITCHELL, E.B. & JOHNS, J. 2008. Avian hematology and related disorders. Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practices 11: 501-522. doi:vi10.1016/j.cvex.2008.03.004

MONTERO, E., GONZÁLEZ, L.M., CHAPARRO, A. ET AL. 2016. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins. Ticks and Tick-bourne Diseases 7: 498-501. doi:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.02.006

MÖRNER, T. & BEASLEY, V. 2012. Monitoring for diseases in wildlife populations. In: NORRGREN, L. & LEVENGOOD, J.M. (Eds.) Ecology and Animal Health, Ecosystem Health and Sustainable Agriculture. Uppsala, Sweden: The Baltic University Programme, Uppsala University.

MORTIMER, L. & LILL, A. 2007. Activity-related variation in blood parameters associated with oxygen transport and chronic stress in little penguins. Australian Journal of Zoology 55: 249-256.

MOTAS, M., JEREZ, S., ESTEBAN, M., VALERA, F., CUERVO, J.J. & BARBOSA, A. 2021. Mercury levels in feathers of penguins from the Antarctic Peninsula area: geographical and inter-specific differences. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18: 9918. doi:10.3390/ijerph18189918.

MYKHAILENKO, A., UTEVSKY, A., SOLODIANKIN, O. ET AL. 2020. First record of Serratia marcescens from Adelie and Gentoo penguin faeces collected in the Wilhelm Archipelago, Graham Land, West Antarctica. Polar Biology 43: 903-910. doi:10.1007/s00300-020-02682-7

OIE [WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH]. 2014. Guidelines for wildlife disease risk analysis. OIE in association with the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Paris, France: OIE and IUCN.

PACIONI, C., EDEN, P., REISS, A., ELLIS, T., KNOWLES, G. & WAYNE, A.F. 2015. Disease hazard identification and assessment associated with wildlife population declines. Ecological Management & Restoration 16: 142-152. doi:10.1111/emr.12155

PADILLA, L.R., WHITEMAN, N.K., MERKEL, J., HUYVAERT, K.P. & PARKER, P.G. 2006. Health assessment of seabirds on Isla Genovesa, Galápagos Islands. Ornithological Monographs 60: 86-97. doi:10.2307/40166830

PALACIOS, M.J., VALERA, F., COLOMINAS-CIURÓ, R. & BARBOSA, A. 2018. Cellular and humoral immunity in two highly demanding energetic life stages: reproduction and moulting in the chinstrap penguin. Journal of Ornithology 159: 283-290. doi:10.1007/s10336-017-1499-7

PARK, J.H., SONG, J., AHN, N. ET AL. 2021. Health surveillance of penguins in the Barton Peninsula on King George Island, Antarctica. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 57: 612-617. doi:10.7589/2019-10-257

PARSONS, N.J., GOUS, T.A., SCHAEFER, A.M. & VANSTREELS, R.E.T. 2016. Health evaluation of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in southern Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 83: e1-e13. doi:10.4102/ojvr.v83i1.1147

PÉREZ DE VARGAS, A., CUADRADO, M., CAMARERO, P.R. & MATEO, R. 2020. An assessment of eggshell pigments as non-invasive biomarkers of organochlorine pollutants in gull-billed tern. Science of The Total Environment 732: 139210. doi:1010.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139210

PLOEG, M., ULTEE, T. & KIK, M. 2011. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Black-footed Penguins (Spheniscus demersus). Avian Diseases 55: 701-703. doi:10.1637/9700-030411

POULLE, M.-L., LE CORRE, M., BASTIEN, M. ET AL. 2021. Exposure of pelagic seabirds to Toxoplasma gondii in the Western Indian Ocean points to an open sea dispersal of this terrestrial parasite. PLoS One 16: e0255664. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255664

PREECE, N.D., ABELL, S.E., GROGAN, L. ET AL. 2017. A guide for ecologists: detecting the role of disease in faunal declines and managing population recovery. Biological Conservation 214: 136-146. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.014

PUSKIC, P.S., LAVERS, J.L. & BOND, A.L. 2020. A critical review of harm associated with plastic ingestion on vertebrates. Science of The Total Environment 743: 140666. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140666

RAMEY, A.M., HILL, N.J., DELIBERTO, T.J. ET AL. 2022. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is an emerging disease threat to wild birds in North America. The Journal of Wildlife Management doi:8610.1002/jwmg.22171

REUSCH, K., RYAN, P.G. & PICHEGRU, L. 2022. Health status indices of Kelp Gull populations in South Africa. Emu - Austral Ornithology 122: 216-225. doi:10.1080/01584197.2022.2114089

ROBINSON, S., CHIARADIA, A. & HINDELL, M.A. 2005. The effect of body condition on the timing and success of breeding in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor. Ibis 147: 483-489. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.2005.00431.x

ROLLAND, V., BARBRAUD, C. & WEIMERSKIRCH, H. 2009. Assessing the impact of fisheries, climate and disease on the dynamics of the Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross. Biological Conservation 142: 1084-1095.

ROPERT-COUDERT, Y., CHIARADIA, A., AINLEY, D. ET AL. 2019. Happy feet in a hostile world? The future of penguins depends on proactive management of current and expected threats. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: e00248 doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00248

RUTKOWSKA, M., PŁOTKA-WASYLKA, J., LUBINSKA-SZCZYGEŁ, M. ET AL. 2018. Birds' feathers-suitable samples for determination of environmental pollutants. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 109: 97-115

RYAN, P.G. 2018. Entanglement of birds in plastics and other synthetic materials. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135: 159-164. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.057

RYSER-DEGIORGIS, M.-P. 2013. Wildlife health investigations: Needs, challenges and recommendations. BMC Veterinary Research 9: 223. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-223

SAGERUP, K., HELGASON, L.B., POLDER, A. ET AL. 2009. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at Bjørnøya (Svalbard). Science of The Total Environment 407: 6009-6016. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.08.020

SAMOUR, J. 2006. Diagnostic value of hematology. Clinical Avian Medicine 2: 587-610

SANDVIK, H., ERIKSTAD, K.E., BARRETT, R.T. & YOCCOZ, N.G. 2005. The effect of climate on adult survival in five species of North Atlantic seabirds. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 817-831. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.00981.x

SANZ-AGUILAR, A., PAYO-PAYO, A., ROTGER, A., ET AL. 2020. Infestation of small seabirds by Ornithodoros maritimus ticks: effects on chick body condition, reproduction and associated infectious agents. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 11:101281. doi:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.101281

SCHOOMBIE, S., SCHOOMBIE, J., OOSTHUIZEN, A. ET AL. 2018. Avian pox in seabirds on Marion Island, Southern Indian Ocean. Antarctic Science 30: 3-12

SEBASTIANO, M., ANGELIER, F., BLÉVIN, P. ET AL. 2020. Exposure to PFAS is associated with telomere length dynamics and demographic responses of an arctic top predator. Environmental Science & Technology 54: 10217-10226. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c03099

SEBASTIANO, M., BUSTAMANTE, P., EULAERS, I. ET AL. 2017. Trophic ecology drives contaminant concentrations within a tropical seabird community. Environmental Pollution 227: 183-193. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.040

SEBASTIANO, M., COSTANTINI, D., EENS, M., PINEAU, K., BUSTAMANTE, P. & CHASTEL, O. 2022. Possible interaction between exposure to environmental contaminants and nutritional stress in promoting disease occurrence in seabirds from French Guiana: a review. Regional Environmental Change 22: 63. doi:10.1007/s10113-022-01914-2

SEBASTIANO, M., EENS, M., MESSINA, S. ET AL. 2018. Resveratrol supplementation reduces oxidative stress and modulates the immune response in free‐living animals during a viral infection. Functional Ecology 32: 2509-2519. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.13195

SEBASTIANO, M., EENS, M., PINEAU, K., CHASTEL, O. & COSTANTINI, D. 2019. Food supplementation protects Magnificent Frigatebird chicks against a fatal viral disease. Conservation Letters 12: e126301. doi:10.1111/conl.12630

SEBASTIANO, M., JOUANNEAU, W., BLÉVIN, P. ET AL. 2021. High levels of fluoroalkyl substances and potential disruption of thyroid hormones in three gull species from South Western France. Science of The Total Environment 765: 144611. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144611

SHAHIDUL ISLAM, M. & TANAKA, M. 2004. Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48: 624-649. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2003.12.004

SMEELE, Z.E., AINLEY, D.G. & VARSANI, A. 2018. Viruses associated with Antarctic wildlife: from serology based detection to identification of genomes using high throughput sequencing. Virus Research 243: 91-105. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2017.10.017

SMITH, K.M., KARESH, W.B., MAJLUF, P. ET AL. 2008. Health evaluation of free-ranging Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in Peru. Avian Diseases 52: 130-135. doi:10.1637/8265-071007-Reg

SOLDATINI, C., SEBASTIANO, M., ALBORES-BARAJAS, Y.V., ABDELGAWAD, H., BUSTAMANTE, P. & COSTANTINI, D. 2020. Mercury exposure in relation to foraging ecology and its impact on the oxidative status of an endangered seabird. Science of The Total Environment 724: 138131. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138131

SOLHEIM, S.A., SAGERUP, K., HUBER, S., BYRKJEDAL, I. & GABRIELSEN, G.W. 2016. The Black-legged Kittiwake preen gland—an overlooked organ for depuration of fat-soluble contaminants? Polar Research 35: 29651. doi:10.3402/polar.v35.29651

SONNE, C., SIEBERT, U., GONNSEN, K., ET AL. 2020. Health effects from contaminant exposure in Baltic Sea birds and marine mammals: a review. Environment International 139: 105725. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105725

STENKAT, J., KRAUTWALD-JUNGHANNS, M.E., SCHMITZ ORNÉS, A., EILERS, A. & CHMIDT, V. 2014. Aerobic cloacal and pharyngeal bacterial flora in six species of free-living birds. Journal of Applied Microbiology 117: 1564-1571. doi:10.1111/jam.12636

STEPHEN, C. 2019. The pan-Canadian approach to wildlife health. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 60: 145-146.

TARTU, S., ANGELIER, F., WINGFIELD, J.C. ET AL. 2015. Corticosterone, prolactin and egg neglect behavior in relation to mercury and legacy pops in a long-lived Antarctic bird. Science of The Total Environment 505: 180-188. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.008

TARTU, S., GOUTTE, A., BUSTAMANTE, P. ET AL. 2013. To breed or not to breed: endocrine response to mercury contamination by an arctic seabird. Biology Letters 9: 20130317. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0317

TAVARES, D.C., FULGENCIO DE MOURA, J. & SICILIANO, S. 2016. Environmental predictors of seabird wrecks in a tropical coastal area. PLoS One 11: e0168717. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168717

TELLA, J.L., FORERO, M.G., BERTELLOTTI, M., DONÁZAR, J.A., BLANCO, G. & CEBALLOS, O. 2001. Offspring body condition and immunocompetence are negatively affected by high breeding densities in a colonial seabird: a multiscale approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 268: 1455-1461. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1688.

THÉBAULT, J., BUSTAMANTE, P., MASSARO, M., TAYLOR, G. & QUILLFELDT, P. 2020. Influence of species‐specific feeding ecology on mercury concentrations in seabirds breeding on the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 40: 454-472. doi:10.1002/etc.4933

THOMPSON, R.C.A., LYMBERY, A.J. & SMITH, A. 2010. Parasites, emerging disease and wildlife conservation. International Journal for Parasitology 40: 1163-1170. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.04.009

TRAVIS, E.K., VARGAS, F.H., MERKEL, J., GOTTDENKER, N., MILLER, R.E. & PARKER, P.G. 2006. Hematology, serum chemistry, and serology of Galápagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42: 625-632. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-42.3.625

TUCKER-RETTER, E.K., VELSEY-GROSS, Z., DERESIENSKI, D. ET AL. 2021. Health status of Nazca Boobies (Sula granti) on Daphne Major Island in the Galápagos determined by hematology, biochemistry, and physical examination. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 52: 671-679

UHART, M., THIJL VANSTREELS, R.E., GALLO, L., COOK, R.A. & KARESH, W.B. 2020. Serological survey for select infectious agents in wild Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Argentina, 1994-2008. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 56: 66. doi:10.7589/2019-01-022

UHART, M.M., GALLO, L. & QUINTANA, F. 2018. Review of diseases (pathogen isolation, direct recovery and antibodies) in albatrosses and large petrels worldwide. Bird Conservation International 28: 169-196.

VALKIŪNAS, G., IEZHOVA, T.A., KRIŽANAUSKIENĖ, A., PALINAUSKAS, V., SEHGAL, R.N.M. & BENSCH, S. 2008. A comparative analysis of microscopy and PCR-based detection methods for blood parasites. Journal of Parasitology 94: 1395-1401. doi:10.1645/ge-1570.1

VALLE, C.A., ULLOA, C., REGALADO, C. ET AL. 2020. Baseline haematology, biochemistry, blood gas values and health status of the Galapagos Swallow-tailed Gull (Greagrus furcatus). Conservation Physiology 8: 1-7. doi:10.1093/conphys/coaa064

VAN HEMERT, C., SCHOEN, S.K., LITAKER, R.W. ET AL. 2020. Algal toxins in Alaskan seabirds: evaluating the role of saxitoxin and domoic acid in a large-scale die-off of common murres. Harmful Algae 92: 101730. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2019.101730

VANSTREELS, R., HURTADO, R., EWBANK, A., BERTOZZI, C. & CATÃO-DIAS, J. 2016a. Lesions associated with drowning in bycaught penguins. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 121: 241-248. doi:10.3354/dao03052

VANSTREELS, R.E., PARSONS, N.J., MCGEORGE, C. ET AL. 2019. Identification of land predators of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus through post-mortem examination. Ostrich - Journal of African Ornithology 90: 359-372. doi:10.2989/00306525.2019.1697971

VANSTREELS, R.E.T., BRAGA, É.M. & CATÃO-DIAS, J.L. 2016b. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review. Parasitology 143: 931-956. doi:10.1017/s0031182016000251

VANSTREELS, R.E.T., WOEHLER, E.J., RUOPPOLO, V. ET AL. 2015. Epidemiology and molecular phylogeny of Babesia sp in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in Australia. International Journal for Parasitology-Parasites and Wildlife 4: 198-205. doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.03.002

VENTURA, F., GRANADEIRO, J.P., MATIAS, R. & CATRY, P. 2021. Spatial and temporal aggregation of albatross chick mortality events in the Falklands suggests a role for an unidentified infectious disease. Polar Biology 44: 351-360. doi:10.1007/s00300-020-02797-x

VIDAL, V., ORTIZ, J., DIAZ, J.I. ET AL. 2012. Gastrointestinal parasites in chinstrap penguins from deception island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. Parasitology Research 111: 723-727. doi:10.1007/s00436-012-2892-z

VLECK, C.M., VERTALINO, N., VLECK, D. & BUCHER, T.L. 2000. Stress, corticosterone, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in free-living Adélie Penguins. The Condor 102: 392-400.

VOGT, N.A., STEVENS, C.P.G., PEARL, D.L., TABOADA, E.N. & JARDINE, C.M. 2020. Generalizability and comparability of prevalence estimates in the wild bird literature: methodological and epidemiological considerations. Animal Health Research Reviews 21: 81-95. doi:10.1017/S1466252320000043

VOTIER, S.C., BIRKHEAD, T.R., ORO, D. ET AL. 2008. Recruitment and survival of immature seabirds in relation to oil spills and climate variability. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 974-983. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01421.x

WANG, J., SELLECK, P., YU, M. ET AL. 2014. Novel phlebovirus with zoonotic potential isolated from ticks, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20: 1040-1043. doi:10.3201/eid2006.140003

WATSON, M.J. 2013. What drives population-level effects of parasites? Meta-analysis meets life-history. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 2: 190-196. doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.05.001

WEIMERSKIRCH, H. 2004. Diseases threaten Southern Ocean albatrosses. Polar Biology 27: 374-379. doi:10.1007/s00300-004-0600-x

WEIMERSKIRCH, H., INCHAUSTI, P., GUINET, C. & BARBRAUD, C. 2003. Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the southern ocean. Antarctic Science 15: 249-256.

WEIMERSKIRCH, H., SHAFFER, S.A., MABILLE, G., MARTIN, J., BOUTARD, O. & ROUANET, J.L. 2002. Heart rate and energy expenditure of incubating wandering albatrosses: basal levels, natural variation, and the effects of human disturbance. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 475-483. doi:10.1242/jeb.205.4.475

WILKINSON, B.P., ROBUCK, A.R., LOHMANN, R., PICKARD, H.M. & JODICE, P.G.R. 2022. Urban proximity while breeding is not a predictor of perfluoroalkyl substance contamination in the eggs of brown pelicans. Science of The Total Environment 803: 150110. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150110

WILL, A., THIEBOT, J.-B., IP, H.S. ET AL. 2020. Investigation of the 2018 Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia) die-off on St. Lawrence Island rules out food shortage as the cause. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 181-182: 104879. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2020.104879

WILL, A., WYNNE‐EDWARDS, K., ZHOU, R. & KITAYSKY, A. 2019. Of 11 candidate steroids, corticosterone concentration standardized for mass is the most reliable steroid biomarker of nutritional stress across different feather types. Ecology and Evolution 9: 11930-11943. doi:10.1002/ece3.5701

WILLE, M., HARVEY, E., SHI, M., GONZALEZ-ACUÑA, D., HOLMES, E.C. & HURT, A.C. 2020. Sustained RNA virome diversity in Antarctic Penguins and their ticks. The ISME Journal 14: 1768-1782. doi:10.1038/s41396-020-0643-1

WOODS, R., JONES, H., WATTS, J., MILLER, G. & SHELLAM, G. 2009. Diseases of Antarctic seabirds. In: KNOWLES, K., RIDDLE, M. Health of Antarctic wildlife: a challenge for science and policy. Berlin, Germany: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-93923-8

WOODS, R., REISS, A., COX-WITTON, K., GRILLO, T. & PETERS, A. 2019. The importance of wildlife disease monitoring as part of global surveillance for zoonotic diseases: the role of Australia. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 4: 29. doi:10.3390/tropicalmed4010029

YAMASHITA, R., HIKI, N., KASHIWADA, F. ET AL. 2021. Plastic additives and legacy persistent organic pollutants in the preen gland oil of seabirds sampled across the globe. Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research 1: 97-112. doi:10.5985/emcr.20210009

Search by author or title:

Browse previous volumes: