Volume 45, No. 2
Volumes > 37 (2010-->) Volumes 28-37 (2000-09) Volumes 18-27 (1990-99) Volumes 5-17 (1978-89)
Quick Search by author or article title:
Key words: Greater Crested Tern, body condition, chick growth, demography, reproductive success, reproductive timing, seabird, South Australia
Among bird species with defined breeding seasons, rates of reproductive success are higher among individuals that breed earlier in the season and decrease as the season progresses. Seasonal decreases in breeding success have been explained by decreases in prey availability or by variations in parental 'quality,' mediated by age-related experience or phenotype. We examined seasonal patterns of primary production, as an indicator of prey availability, in relation to the breeding phenology of three Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii colonies in gulf waters of South Australia. We then determined the influence of reproductive timing on the reproductive performance (chick growth and survival) of Greater Crested Terns and the role of parental 'quality' in reproductive success by measuring reproductive timing in relation to parental age and body condition. In contrast to expectations, increased primary production was observed in winter months, long after the chick fledging period. High production in winter may benefit newly fledged juvenile terns that have relatively less skill and experience than adults. Chick hatching was synchronised among colonies located 250 km apart, and the timing of breeding had a significant effect on reproductive performance. Chicks reared by older adults hatched earlier in the breeding season than younger adults, and exhibited better growth and body condition (hatch mass, linear growth rate, and asymptotic mass) and higher rates of survival. There was less support for the effects of body condition, measured by a body condition index (BCI), on reproductive timing, and no significant relationship between adult age and body condition. However, individuals less than seven years old had significantly poorer body condition than those that were older. The seasonal patterns in age-related breeding success we observed may be explained by parents' age-related improvements in breeding and foraging proficiency, shaped through their need to provision their chicks with a single prey item that is small enough for the chick to swallow.
AFAN, I., CHIARADIA, A., FORERO, M.G., DANN, P. & RAMIREZ, F. 2015. A novel spatio-temporal scale based on ocean currents unravels environmental drivers of reproductive timing in a marine predator. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 20150721.
AINLEY, D.G., FORD, R.G., BROWN, E.D., SURYAN, R.M. & IRONS, D. 2003. Prey resources, competition, and geographic structure of kittiwake colonies in Prince William Sound. Ecology 84: 709-723.
ARNOLD, J.M., HATCH, J.J. & NISBET, I.C.T. 2004. Seasonal declines in reproductive success of the Common Tern Sterna hirundo: timing or parental quality? Journal of Avian Biology 35: 33-45.
BLUMS, P., NICHOLS, J.D., HINES, J.E., LINDBERG, M.S. & MEDNIS, A. 2005. Individual quality, survival variation, and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds. Oecologia 143: 365-376.
BRUCE, B.D. & SHORT, D.A. (1990). Observations on the distribution of larval fish in relation to a frontal zone at the mouth of Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Bureau of Rural Resource Proceedings 15: 124-137.
BURNHAM, K.P. & ANDERSON, D.R. 2002. Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretical approach. New York, NY: Springer.
CAM, E., MONNAT, J. & HINES, J.E. 2003. Long term fitness consequences of early conditions in the kittiwake. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 411-424.
CLUTTON-BROCK, T.H. 1988. Reproductive Success. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
COOCH, E.G. 2002. Fledging size and survival in snow geese: timing is everything (or is it?). Journal of Applied Statistics 29: 143-162.
DRENT, R.H. & DANN, S. 1980. The prudent parent: energetic adjustments in avian breeding. Ardea 68: 225-252.
DUNLOP, J.N. 1985. Reproductive periodicity in a population of Crested Terns, Sterna bergii Lichtenstein, in South-Western Australia. Australian Journal of Wildlife Research 12: 95-102.
DUNN, P.O. & WINKLER, D.W. 2010. Effects of climate change on timing of breeding and reproductive success in birds. In: MØLLER, A.P. FIEDLER, W. & BERTHOLD, P. (Eds.) Effects of Climate Change on Birds. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. PP. 113-128.
FORSLUND, P. & PART, T. 1995. Age and reproduction in birds-hypotheses and tests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10: 374-378.
FRACASSO, H.A.A. & BRANCO, J.O. 2012. Reproductive success of South American Terns Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences 84: 1-10.
FURNESS, R.W. & TASKER, M.L. 2000. Seabird fishery interactions: quantifying the sensitivity of seabirds to reductions in sandeel abundance, and identification of key areas for sensitive seabirds in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 202: 253-264.
GAUGHAN, D.J, MITCHELL, R.W. & BLIGHT, S.J. 2000. Impact of mortality, possibly due to herpes virus, on Pilchard Sardinops sagax stocks along the south west coast of Western Australia in 1998-99. Marine and Freshwater Research 51: 601-612.
GEBHARDT-HENRICH, S. & RICHNER, H. 1998. Causes of growth variation and its consequences for fitness. In: STARCK, JM, RICKLEFS, R.E. (Eds.) Avian Growth and Development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. PP. 324-339.
GOLET, G.H., IRONS, D.B. & ESTES, J.A. 1998. Survival costs of chick rearing in black-legged kittiwakes. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 827-841.
GREEN, A.J. 2001. Mass/Length residuals: measures of body condition or generators of spurious results. Ecology 82: 1473-1483.
HAMER, K.C., SCHREIBER, E.A. & BURGER, J. 2002. Breeding biology, life histories and life history environment interactions in seabirds. In: SCHREIBER, E.A., BURGER J. (Eds.). Biology of Marine Birds: 217-262. London, UK: CRC Press.
AODN Open access to ocean data [Online]. Australia: Integrated Marine Observing System. [Available online at: https://portal.aodn.org.au/. Accessed 23 December 2015].
LACK, D. 1950. The breeding seasons of European birds. Ibis 92: 288-316.
LACK, D. 1954. The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
LAMB, J.S, O'REILLY, K.M. & JODICE, P.G.R. 2016. Physical condition and stress levels during early development reflect feeding rates and predict pre and post-fledging survival in a nearshore seabird. Conservation Physiology 4: 1-14.
LANGHAM, N.P.E. & HULSMAN, K. 1986. The breeding biology of the Crested Tern Sterna bergii. Emu 86: 23-32.
LE CORRE, M., CHEREL, Y., LAGARDE, F., LORMEE, H. & JOUVENTIN, P. 2003. Seasonal and inter-annual variation in the feeding ecology of a tropical oceanic seabird, the Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda. Marine Ecology Progress Series 255: 289-301
LEWIS, S., WANLESS, S., ELSTON, D.A., ET AL. 2006. Determinants of quality in a long-lived colonial species. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 1304-1312.
LIMMER, B. & BECKER, P.H. 2009. Improvement in chick provisioning with parental experience in a seabird. Animal Behaviour 77: 1095-1101.
LIMMER, B. & BECKER, P.H. 2010. Improvement of reproductive performance with age and breeding experience depends on recruitment age in a long-lived seabird. Oikos 199: 500-507.
MARITORENA S., SIEGEL D.A. & PETERSON A.R. 2002. Optimization of a semi-analytical ocean color model for global-scale applications. Applied Optics 41: 2075-2714.
MAUCK, R.A., HUNTINGTON, C.E & GRUBB, T.C. 2004. Age specific reproductive success: Evidence for the selection hypothesis. Evolution 58: 880-885.
McLEAY, L.J. 2010. The Life History Characters, Reproductive Constraints and Foraging Strategies of a Neritic Seabird, the Crested Tern. PhD thesis. Adelaide, South Australia: University of Adelaide.
McLEAY, L.J., PAGE, B., GOLDSWORTHY, S.D., ET AL. 2010. Fine-scale foraging behaviour and habitat use of a short-ranging seabird, the Crested Tern. Marine Ecology Progress Series 411: 271-283.
McLEAY, L.J., PAGE, B., GOLDSWORTHY, S.D., ET AL. 2009a. Demographic and morphological responses to prey depletion in a Crested Tern Sterna bergii population: Can fish mortality events highlight performance indicators for fisheries management? ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 237-247.
McLEAY, L.J., PAGE, B., GOLDSWORTHY, S.D., WARD, T.M. & PATON, D.C. 2009b. Size matters: variation in the diet of chick and adult Crested Terns. Marine Biology 156: 1765-1780.
MONAGHAN, P., UTTLEY, J.D. & BURNS, M.D. 1992. Effect of changes in food availability on reproductive effort in Arctic Terns Sterna paradisaea. Ardea 80: 71-81.
NEWELL, M., WANLESS, S., HARRIS, M.P. & DAUNT, F. 2015. Effects of an extreme weather event on seabird breeding success at a North Sea colony. Marine Ecology Progress Series 532: 257-268. doi:10.3354/meps11329.
NISBET, I.C.T & WELTON, M.J. 1984. Seasonal variations in breeding success of common terns: consequences of predation. Condor 86: 53-60.
PAGE, B., McKENZIE, J., SUMNER, M.D., COYNE, M. & GOLDWORTHY, S.D. 2006. Spatial separation of foraging habitats among New Zealand fur seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 323: 263-279.
PERRINS, C.M. 1970. The timing of birds' breeding seasons. Ibis 112: 242-245.
PINAUD, D. & WEIMERSKIRCH, H. 2007. At-sea distribution and scale-dependent foraging behaviour of petrels and albatrosses: a comparative study. Journal of Animal Ecology 76: 9-19.
POLOVINA, J.J., BALAZS, G.H., HOWELL, E.A., PARKER, D.M., SEKI, M.P. & DUTTON, P.H. 2004. Forage and migration habitat of Loggerhead Caretta caretta and Olive Ridley Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtles in the central North Pacific Ocean. Fisheries and Oceanography 13: 36-51.
PYLE, P., SYDEMAN, W.J. & HESTER, M. 2001. Effects of age, breeding experience, mate fidelity and site fidelity on breeding performance in a declining population of Cassin's auklets. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 1088-1097.
REGULAR, P.M., HEDD, A., MONTEVECCHI, W.A., ROBERTSON, G.J., STOREY, A.E. & WALSH, C.J. 2014. Why timing is everything: Energetic costs and reproductive consequences of resource mismatch for a chick rearing seabird. Ecosphere 5(12): Article155.
RICHNER, H. 1989a. Habitat-specific growth and fitness in Carrion Crows Corvus corone corone. Journal of Animal Ecology 58: 427-440.
RICHNER, H. 1989b. Phenotypic correlates of dominance in Carrion Crows and their effects on access to food. Animal Behaviour 38: 606-612.
RICHNER, H., SCHNEITER, P. & STIRNIMANN, H. 1989. Life history consequences of growth rate depression: An experimental study on Carrion Crows Corvus corone corone. Functional Ecology 36: 617-624.
RICKLEFS, R.E. 1968. Patterns of growth in birds. Ibis 110: 419-451.
SCHEW, W.A. & RICKLEFS, R.E. 1998. Developmental plasticity. In: STARCK, J.M. & RICKLEFS, R.E. (Eds.). Avian Growth and Development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. PP. 288-304.
SCHREIBER, E.A. 2002. Climate and weather effects on seabirds. In: SCHREIBER, E.A., BURGER J. (Eds.). Biology of Marine Birds. London, UK: CRC Press. PP. 179-216.
SMITH, G.C. 1993. Feeding and breeding of Crested Terns at a tropical locality—comparison with sympatric Black-naped Terns. Emu 93: 65-70.
STIENEN, E.W.M. & BRENNINKMEIJER, A. 1999. Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich Terns can minimise kleptoparasitism by Black-headed Gulls. Animal Behaviour 57: 1135-1144.
SURYAN, R.M., SATO, F., BALOGH, G.R., HYRENBACH, K.D., SIEVERT, P.R. & OZAKI K. 2006. Foraging destinations and marine habitat use of Short-tailed Albatrosses: a multi-scale approach using first-passage time analysis. Deep-sea Research II 53: 370-386.
SYDEMAN, W.J., PENNIMAN, J.F., PENNIMAN, T.M., PYLE, P. & AINLEY, D.G. 1991. Breeding performance in the Western Gull: effects of parental age, timing of breeding and year in relation to food availability. Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 135-149.
WALKER, T.A. 1992. A record Crested Tern Sterna bergii colony and concentrated breeding by seabirds in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Emu 93: 65-70.
WARD, T.M., HOEDT, F., McLEAY, L.J., ET AL. 2001. Effects of the 1995 and 1998 mass mortality events on the spawning biomass of sardine Sardinops sagax in South Australian waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science 58: 865-875.
WARD, T.M. & STAUNTON-SMITH, J. 2002. Comparison of the spawning patterns and fisheries biology of the sardine Sardinops sagax in temperate South Australia and sub-tropical southern Queensland. Fisheries Research 56: 37-49.
WARD, T.M., WHITTON, A.R. & IVEY, A.R. 2015. South Australian sardine fishery: stock assessment report 2015. Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. SARDI Publication No. F2007/000765-5. SARDI Research Report Series No 877. Adelaide, South Australia: South Australian research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences).
WATERMAN, M., MURRAY, M.D. & CONNELL, D. 2003. Dispersal of Crested Terns Sterna bergii from colonies in South Australia. Corella 27: 93-101.
WEIMERSKIRCH, H. 1992. Reproductive effort in long lived birds: age specific patterns of condition, reproduction and survival in the wandering albatross. Oikos 64: 464-473.
WENDELN, H. & BECKER, P.H. 1999. Effects of parental quality and effort on the reproduction of Common Terns. Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 205-214.
ZHANG, H., REBKE, M., BECKER, P.H. & BOUWHUIS, S. 2015. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird. Journal of Animal Ecology 84: 199-207.